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Modeling

GREEN3D, release March 2010. The MatLab shell of the Fortran 77 library GREENLIB for computing the normal fields and volume integrals of electromagnetic Green's tensors. This program is designed to help the development of electromagnetic modeling and inversion programs. It is an easy-to-use MATLAB function which can be called up anywhere in the MATLAB environment. Using this library, the software developer is freed from coding the excessively complex algorithms for Green's tensors and different electromagnetic fields in a layered medium.
Author: Gabor Hursan
References:
Xiong, Z., 1992, EM modeling of three-dimensional structures by the method of system iteration using integral equations, Geophysics, 57, 1556-1561.
Zhdanov, M. S., and G. V. Keller, 1994, The geoelectrical methods in geophysical exploration: Elsevier, 873 pp.
G. Hursan, 1999, A Fortran 77 Library for Computing the Normal Fields and Volume Integrals of Electromagnetic Green's Tensors: Proceedings of the CEMI 1999 Annual Meeting.

GT3D, release March 2001. The Matlab software package for computing electromagnetic Green's tensor functions in horizontally layered bi-anisotropic medium. This program is designed to help the development of electromagnetic modeling and inversion programs. It is an easy-to-use MATLAB function which can be called up anywhere in the MATLAB environment. Using this library, the software developer is freed from coding the excessively complex algorithms for Green's tensors and different electromagnetic fields in a horizontally layered medium with anisotropy in both magnetic and electric properties.
Author: Arvidas Cheryauka
References: Cheryauka, A., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2001, Electromagnetic tensor Green's functions and their integrals in transverse isotropic layered media: Proceedings of CEMI 2001 Annual Meeting.

FWDTIWL3D, release March 2007. 3-D forward modeling code of tensor induction well-logging (TIWL) instrument responses. The code is based on INTEM3DQL - integral equation modeling code (Hursan and Zhdanov, 2002) with multi-grid quasi-linear approximation (Ueda and Zhdanov, 2006). The release includes a graphical user interface (GUI) for convinient way of designing model and displaying the results. The code is written in Matlab language.
Authors: Alex Gribenko and Michael S. Zhdanov.
References:
Hursan, G., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2002, Contraction integral equation method in three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling: Radio Science, 37 (6), 1089, doi: 10.1029/ 2001RS002513.
Ueda, T., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2006, Fast numerical modeling of multitransmitter electromagnetic data using multigrid quasi-linear approximation: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing: 44, 1428-1434.


INTEM3DIP ver. 2010, release March 2011. The Matlab software package for forward modeling of a 3D electromagnetic field based on the IE method. This code is designed for simulating frequency domain EM responses of a 3D complex conductivity structure in horizontally layered earth with complex conductivities. In addition to the same forward modeling routines as in the INTEM3D Matlab code, the package includes a new routine which is based on the multigrid quasilinear (MGQL) approximation. This program can work with Matlab 2006 and with the latest versions including Matlab 2009. The sources used in the program are the same as in GREEN3D and INTEM3D:
- plane wave propagating vertically toward the earth (magnetotelluric);
- current bipoles along the x, y, and z directions;
- horizontal rectangular loop:
- horizontal circular loop;
- moving horizontal loops;
- magnetic dipoles oriented in the x, y, and z directions.
Authors: Masashi Endo and Michael Zhdanov
Hursan, G., and M. S. Zhdanov,  2002, Contraction integral equation method in three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling: Radio Sci., 37 (6), 1089, doi: 10.1029/ 2001RS002513.
Ueda, T., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2006, Fast numerical modeling of multitransmitter electromagnetic data using multigrid quasi-linear approximation: IEEE Transactions in Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 44, 1428-1434.
Zhdanov, M. S., 2002, Geophysical inverse theory and regularization problems: Elsevier.

IBCEM3D ver. 2009, release March 2010. The Matlab software package for 3D modeling of electromagnetic fields in a 3D\ complex conductivity structure with complex inhomogeneous background conductivity. The code uses the contraction integral equation (CIE) method for the solution of frequency domain EM field integral equations. This program can work with Matlab 2006 and with the latest versions including Matlab 2009. The responses are computed in double precision. The sources used in the program are the same as in INTEM3DQL:
- plane wave propagating vertically toward the earth (magnetotelluric);
- current bipoles along the x, y, and z directions;
- horizontal rectangular loop:
- horizontal circular loop;
- moving horizontal loops;
- magnetic dipoles oriented in the x, y, and z directions.
Authors: Masashi Endo and Michael Zhdanov
Hursan, G., and M. S. Zhdanov,  2002, Contraction integral equation method in three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling: Radio Sci., 37 (6), 1089, doi: 10.1029/ 2001RS002513.
Ueda, T., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2006, Fast numerical modeling of multitransmitter electromagnetic data using multigrid quasi-linear approximation: IEEE Transactions in Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 44, 1428-1434.
Zhdanov, M. S., S. K. Lee,  and K. Yoshioka, 2006, Integral equation method for 3D modeling of electromagnetic fields in complex structures with inhomogeneous background conductivity: Geophysics, 71 (6), G333-G345, doi: 10.1190/ 1.2358403.

PIE3D ver. 2013, Release March 2014. The PIE3D ver. 2013 is parallel EM forward modeling software based on the IE method. PIE3D ver. 2013 is designed for distributed memory machines (e.g., PC clusters) and is portable on any computer that supports message passing interface (MPI). This code simulates frequency-domain EM responses of multiple-domain (MD) 3D anomalous resistivity structures in a horizontally layered medium.
For this release we have improved the performance of the GMRES solver by using overlap of communication of the domain field vector with the calculation of the field vector - Greens matrix product. This is allowed by the new MPI 3.0 standard support for nonblocking collective communication; therefore an MPI distribution that supports MPI 3.0 is required for this feature.
We also release a modified GREEN3D library that supports arbitrary orientation of a horizontal electric bipole. This feature is useful for more complicated bipole source shapes. This new source is incorporated in the PIE3D modeling as well.
Authors: Martin Cuma and Michael Zhdanov
    Endo, M., M. Čuma, and M. S. Zhdanov, 2009, Application of a multiple-domain, integral-equation method for 3D electromagnetic modeling in complex geoelectrical structures: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, Consortium for Electromagnetic Modeling and Inversion, 27-48.
    Endo, M., M. Čuma, and Zhdanov, M. S., 2009, Large-scale electromagnetic modeling for multiple inhomogeneous domains: Communications in Computational Physics, 6, 269-289.
    Hursán, G., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2002, Contraction integral equation method in three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling: Radio Science, 37 (6), 1089, doi: 10.1029/ 2001RS002513.
    Yoshioka, K., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2005, Electromagnetic forward modeling based on the integral equation method using parallel computers: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, Consortium for Electromagnetic Modeling and Inversion, 25-44.
    Yoshioka, K., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2006, Modeling large-scale geoelectrical structures with inhomogeneous backgrounds using the integral equation method: application to the bathymetry effects in marine CSEM data: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, Consortium for Electromagnetic Modeling and Inversion, 159-180.
    Zhdanov, M. S., S. K. Lee, and K. Yoshioka, 2006, Integral equation method for 3D modeling of electromagnetic fields in complex structures with inhomogeneous background conductivity: Geophysics, 71 (6), G333-G345, doi: 10.1190/1.2358403.
    Ueda, T., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2006, Fast numerical modeling of multitransmitter electromagnetic data using multigrid quasi-linear approximation: IEEE Transactions in Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 44, 1428-1434.
    Zhdanov, M. S., 2002, Geophysical inverse theory and regularization problems: Elsevier.


Inversion

LQLBH3DTI, version 1.0. Matlab software package for 3-D imaging of tensor induction well logging (TIWL) data, collected in a single borehole. The package includes a visualization tool to represent the volume image around a borehole, and the arbitrarily selective cross-sections and depth-slices of the reconstructed conductivity. The inversion algorithm is based on the LQL approximation of the forward modeling operator and re-weighted regularized conjugate gradient inversion with the option of smoothed and focusing imaging.
Authors: Michael S. Zhdanov, Alex Gribenko, and Efthimios Tartaras.
References: Tartaras, E., Gribenko, A., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2002, Fast Inversion of Single-hole EM Induction Data Proceedings of the CEMI 2002 Annual Meeting.

MT3D ver. 2013, release March 2014. Release March 2014. Matlab software package for 3D inversion of the magnetotelluric (MT), magnetovariational (MV), and Z-tipper (ZTEM) data. The predicted data are calculated rigorously by the PIE3D integral equation (IE) modeling code (Hursán and Zhdanov, 2002). The fast Fréchet derivative computation is based on the quasi-Born (QB) approximation (Gribenko et al., 2010). The standard approach of minimizing the Tikhonov parametric functional (Tikhonov and Arsenin, 1977) is realized in the code. The regularized conjugate-gradient method with adaptive regularization is used for the parametric functional minimization (Zhdanov, 2002).
New features of the code are 1D inversion of the principal impedance data to obtain an initial model. Besides 3D conductivity distribution, the code recovers the full impedance distortion tensor (Groom and Bailey, 1989). One of the novel features of the code is automatic static shift correction based on the simultaneous inversion for the components of the distortion tensor. Variable sensitivity domain size is computed based on skin depth for each frequency.
The code outputs 3D conductivity distribution, predicted impedance and/or tipper data, and RMS misfit values. The solution and predicted fields can be visualized by the code.
Authors: Alexander Gribenko, VirginiaMaris, Michael S. Zhdanov, and Michael Jorgensen
References:
Hursan, G., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2002, Contraction integral equation method in three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling: Radio Science, 37 (6), 1089, doi: 10.1029/ 2001RS002513.
Gribenko, A., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2007a, Rigorous 3D inversion of marine CSEM data based on the integral equation method: Geophysics, 72, WA73.
Gribenko, A., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2007b, Regularized focusing inversion of marine CSEM data using minimum vertical support stabilizer: 77th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 579-583.
Groom, R. W., and R. C. Bailey, 1989, Decomposition of magnetotelluric impedance tensors in the presence of local three dimensional galvanic distortion: Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, 1913-1925.
Tikhonov, A. N., and V. Y. Arsenin, 1977, Solution of ill-posed problems: V. H. Wilson and Sons.
Zhdanov, M. S., 2002, Geophysical inverse theory and regularization problems: Elsevier

MCSEM3D ver. 2012, Release March 2013. Matlab software package for 3D inversion of the marine controlled source electromagnetic (MCSEM) data. The predicted data are calculated rigorously by the PIE3D integral equation (IE) modeling code. The fast Fréchet derivative computation is based on the quasi-Born (QB) approximation (Gribenko et al., 2010). The standard approach of minimizing the Tikhonov parametric functional (Tikhonov and Arsenin, 1977) is realized in the code. The regularized conjugategradient method with re-weightings and adaptive regularization is used for parametric functional minimization (Zhdanov, 2002). At the first stage, the code uses a minimum norm stabilizer, minimum gradient stabilizers, or their combination, which produces smooth conductivity distributions (Gribenko and Zhdanov, 2011). At the consequent stages (re-weightings), the user has a choice of minimum norm, minimum support (Portniaguine and Zhdanov, 1999), minimum vertical support (Zhdanov et al., 2007) stabilizers, or their combination. Appropriate selection of the stabilizing functional allows the user to find a solution with sharp geoelectrical boundaries.
Unlike the previous versions, the code allows several transmitter lines with inline MCSEMdata. The code uses the parallel version of the 3D electromagnetic (EM) forward modeling code (PIE3D). MCSEM3D is written in the MATLAB language for the versions 2006b or later. MATLAB license is required to run MCSEM3D. MCSEM3D is platform independent.,   
Authors: Alexander Gribenko, Daeung Yoon, and Michael S. Zhdanov   
References:   
    Hursán, G., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2002, Contraction integral equation method in three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling: Radio Science, 37 (6), 1089, doi:
10.1029/ 2001RS002513.
Gribenko, A., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2010, Rigorous 3D inversion of marine CSEM data based on the integral equation method: Geophysics, 72, WA73.
Gribenko, A., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2011, Joint inversion of MT and MCSEM data in off-shore exploration: Proceedings of 2011 CEMI Annual Meeting.
Gribenko, A., L. Wan, and M. S. Zhdanov, 2010, Three-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric data for complex resistivity: Proceedings of 2010 CEMI Annual
Meeting, 269-294.
Gribenko, A., A. M. Green, M. Cuma, and M. S. Zhdanov, 2010, Efficient 3D inversion of MT data using integral equations method and the receiver footprint approach:
application to the large-scale inversion of the EarthScope MT data: 80th Annual InternationalMeeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 655-659, doi:10.1190/1.3513865.
Portniaguine, O., and M. S. Zhdanov, 1999, Focusing geophysical inversion images: Geophysics, 64, 874-887.
Tikhonov, A. N., and V. Y. Arsenin, 1977, Solution of ill-posed problems: V. H. Winston and Sons.
Zhdanov, M. S., 2002, Geophysical inverse theory and regularization problems: Elsevier.
Zhdanov, M.S., 2009, Geophysical electromagnetic theory and methods: Elsevier.
Zhdanov, M. S., A. Gribenko, and M. Cuma, 2007, Regularized focusing inversion of marine CSEM data using minimum vertical-support stabilizer: 77th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 579-583.

MCSEM_MT3D ver. 2012. Release March 2013. Matlab software package for joint 3D inversion of the marine controlled source electromagnetic (MCSEM) and magnetotelluric (MT) data. The predicted data are calculated rigorously by the PIE3D integral equation (IE) modeling code. The fast Fréchet derivative computation is based on the quasi-Born (QB) approximation (Gribenko et al., 2010). The standard approach of minimizing the Tikhonov parametric functional (Tikhonov and Arsenin, 1977) is realized in the code. The regularized conjugate-gradient method with re-weightings and adaptive regularization is used for the parametric functional minimization (Zhdanov, 2002). At the first stage the code uses a minimum norm stabilizer, minimum gradient stabilizers, or their combination, which produces smooth conductivity distributions (Gribenko and Zhdanov, 2011). At the consequent stages (re-weightings) the user has a choice of minimum norm, minimum support (Portniaguine and Zhdanov, 1999), minimum vertical support (Zhdanov et al., 2007) stabilizers, or their combination. Appropriate selection of the stabilizing functional allows the user to find a solution with sharp geoelectrical boundaries. An adaptive data weighting technique is implemented in the code.
Unlike the previous versions, the code allows several transmitter lines with in-line MCSEM data. The code uses the parallel version of the 3D electromagnetic (EM) forward modeling code (PIE3D). MCSEM3D_MT3D is written in MATLAB language for the versions 2006b or later. MATLAB license is required to run MCSEM_MT3D. MCSEM_MT3D is platform independent.
Authors: Alexander Gribenko and Michael S. Zhdanov   
References:   
    Hursán, G., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2002, Contraction integral equation method in three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling: Radio Science, 37 (6), 1089, doi:
10.1029/ 2001RS002513.
Gribenko, A., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2010, Rigorous 3D inversion of marine CSEM data based on the integral equation method: Geophysics, 72, WA73.
Gribenko, A., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2011, Joint inversion of MT and MCSEM data in off-shore exploration: Proceedings of 2011 CEMI Annual Meeting.
Gribenko, A., L. Wan, and M. S. Zhdanov, 2010, Three-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric data for complex resistivity: Proceedings of 2010 CEMI Annual
Meeting, 269-294.
Gribenko, A., A. M. Green, M. Cuma, and M. S. Zhdanov, 2010, Efficient 3D inversion of MT data using integral equations method and the receiver footprint approach:
application to the large-scale inversion of the EarthScope MT data: 80th Annual InternationalMeeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 655-659, doi:10.1190/1.3513865.
Portniaguine, O., and M. S. Zhdanov, 1999, Focusing geophysical inversion images: Geophysics, 64, 874-887.
Tikhonov, A. N., and V. Y. Arsenin, 1977, Solution of ill-posed problems: V. H. Winston and Sons.
Zhdanov, M. S., 2002, Geophysical inverse theory and regularization problems: Elsevier.
Zhdanov, M.S., 2009, Geophysical electromagnetic theory and methods: Elsevier.
Zhdanov, M. S., A. Gribenko, and M. Cuma, 2007, Regularized focusing inversion of marine CSEM data using minimum vertical-support stabilizer: 77th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 579-583.

GRMAG3DTOPO ver. 2010, release March 2011. The software is designed for 3D inversion of the vertical component of the gravity field or any gravity gradient component collected on a variable surface, including the option for joint inversion of these components. It will also invert the total magnetic field under the assumption that the anomalous field is caused by induced magnetization only. This program converts the anomalous data, measured on an irregular grid over a variable surface, into a volume image or model of subsurface density or magnetic susceptibility distribution. It will conform the modeling domain to match given topography, which reduces computation cost by facilitating a more effective discretization of the model space. For inversion, the code uses the approach known as the Re-weighted Regularized Conjugant Gradient method or RRCG method. It also utilizes a technique to naturally imposed model constraints by computing iterations in the space of logarithmic model parameters.   
Release 2010 has been tested in Matlab R2010b. We have incorporated the calculation of all gravity field and tensor components using the point approximation. We also modified the Total Magnetic Intensity calculation kernel to use SI units (e.g., collected by the Fugro FALCON system).   
Authors: Martin Cuma and Michael S. Zhdanov   
References:   
Zhdanov, M. S., 2002, Geophysical inverse theory and regularization problems: Elsevier.   
Zhdanov, M. S., R. G. Ellis, and S. Mukherjee, 2004, Regularized focusing inversion of 3-D gravity tensor data: Geophysics, 69, 925-937.   
Jessop, M., and M. S. Zhdanov, 2005, Focusing inversion of gravity gradient data collected on an arbitrary observation surface: Proceedings of 2005 CEMI Annual Meeting.

PF3D ver. 2011, Release March 2012. The PF3D ver. 2011 is a MATLAB software package for 3D modeling and inversion of potential field data which includes magnetic field, magnetic gradient tensor components, gravity field, and gravity gradient tensor components. The code is designed for 3D inversion of the data collected on a variable surface, including the option for joint inversion of the different gravity or magnetic field and tensor field components. For inversion, the code uses the approach known as the re-weighted regularized conjugant gradient method, or RRCG method, with focusing stabilizers to produce compact geophysical images. It also utilizes a technique to naturally impose model constraints by computing iterations in the space of logarithmic model parameters.
Authors: Martin Cuma and Michael S. Zhdanov   
References:   
    Portniaguine, O., and M. S. Zhdanov, 1999, Focusing geophysical inversion images: Geophysics, 64, 874-887.
    Zhdanov, M. S., 2002, Geophysical inverse theory and regularization problems: Elsevier.

GG3Dmigration ver. 2013, Release March 2014.The GG3Dmigration ver. 2014 is a MATLAB software package for migration of the gravity and/or gravity gradiometry data in order to image a 3D density distribution. The gravity and/or gravity gradiometry data can be collected on a variable surface. The major novel feature of the code is the ability to select an arbitrary combination of gravity field and gravity tensor components and migrate them jointly. The migration can be done on a large scale and within an arbitrary selected domain. The software package includes the source code, user manual and examples. Also, it includes a code to produce the cross-section image for a convenience. The software is easy to maintain and to use.
Authors: Le Wan and Michael S. Zhdanov
References: 
    Zhdanov, M. S., X. Liu, G. A. Wilson, and L. Wan, 2011, Potential field migration for rapid imaging of gravity gradiometry data: Geophysical Prospecting, 59, 1052--1071.

User Interface

LQL-interface, release April 2003. User friendly interface for LQLINV3D code
Author: Ekaterina Tolstaya.

GRMAG-interface. User friendly interface for GRMAG3D code


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